Medical Education

AEM Education and Training 13: Coming in Warm: Qualitative Study and Concept Map to Cultivate Patient‐centered Empathy in Emergency Care

Welcome to the thirteenth episode of AEM Education and Training, a podcast collaboration between the Academic Emergency Medicine E&T Journal and Brown Emergency Medicine. Each quarter, we'll give you digital open access to AEM E&T Articles or Articles in Press, with an author interview podcast and links to curated supportive educational materials for EM learners and medical educators.

Find this podcast series on iTunes here.

DISCUSSING (CLICK ON TITLE TO ACCESS):

Coming in Warm: Qualitative Study and Concept Map to Cultivate Patient‐centered Empathy in Emergency Care. Katie E. Pettit MD Nicholas A. Rattray PhD Hao Wang MD, PhD Shanna Stuckey MS D. Mark Courtney MD, MSCI Anne M. Messman MD Jeffrey A. Kline MD

LISTEN NOW: INTERVIEW WITH FIRST AUTHOR KATIE PETTIT, MD

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Katie Pettit, MD

Assistant Professor of Clinical Emergency Medicine

Associate Program Director, Emergency Medicine Residency Program

Indiana University School of Medicine

ABSTRACT

Background

Increased empathy may improve patient perceptions and outcomes. No training tool has been derived to teach empathy to emergency care providers. Accordingly, we engaged patients to assist in creating a concept map to teach empathy to emergency care providers.

Methods

We recruited patients, patient caretakers and patient advocates with emergency department experience to participate in three separate focus groups (n = 18 participants). Facilitators guided discussion about behaviors that physicians should demonstrate to rapidly create trust; enhance patient perception that the physician understood the patient's point of view, needs, concerns, and fears; and optimize patient/caregiver understanding of their experience. Verbatim transcripts from the three focus groups were read by the authors, and by consensus, five major themes with 10 minor themes were identified. After creating a codebook with thematic definitions, one author reviewed all transcripts to a library of verbatim excerpts coded by theme. To test for inter‐rater reliability, two other authors similarly coded a random sample of 40% of the transcripts. Authors independently chose excerpts that represented consensus and strong emotional responses from participants.

Results

Approximately 90% of opinions and preferences fell within 15 themes, with five central themes: provider transparency, acknowledgment of patient's emotions, provider disposition, trust in physician, and listening. Participants also highlighted the need for authenticity, context, and individuality to enhance empathic communication. For empathy map content, patients offered example behaviors that promote perceptions of physician warmth, respect, physical touch, knowledge of medical history, explanation of tests, transparency, and treating patients as partners. The resulting concept map was named the “Empathy Circle.”

Conclusion

Focus group participants emphasized themes and tangible behaviors to improve empathy in emergency care. These were incorporated into the Empathy Circle, a novel concept map that can serve as the framework to teach empathy to emergency care providers.

AEM Education and Training 10: Turning Your Educational Work Into Scholarship

Welcome to the tenth episode of AEM Education and Training, a podcast collaboration between the Academic Emergency Medicine E&T Journal and Brown Emergency Medicine. Each quarter, we'll give you digital open access to AEM E&T Articles or Articles in Press, with an author interview podcast and links to curated supportive educational materials for EM learners and medical educators.

Find this podcast series on iTunes here.

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DISCUSSING (CLICK ON TITLE TO ACCESS):

Educational Download: Turning Your Educational Work Into Scholarship. Sally A. Santen MD, PhD ; William Peterson MD; Margaret Wolff MD, MHPE.

LISTEN NOW: INTERVIEW WITH FIRST AUTHOR SALLY SANTEN, MD PHD

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Sally Santen, MD, PhD

Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine

Senior Associate Dean of Evaluation, Assessment and Scholarship

Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine

SUMMARY:

Education research and scholarship are essential for promotion of faculty as well as dissemination of new educational practices. Educational faculty frequently spend the majority of their time on administrative and educational commitments and, as a result, educators often fall behind on scholarship and research. This quick educational download focuses on five tips to increase and improve your scholarship.

Dr. Merritt and Dr. Santen engage in a conversation about how to best achieve these points in their conversation. Hear valuable advice on how to ask the right questions in developing your research, how best to work in teams to help promote educational work, how to manage work flow to ensure completion, and other valuable tips.

AEM Education and Training 08: Factors Important to Top Clinical Performance in EM Residency

Welcome to the eighth episode of AEM Education and Training, a podcast collaboration between the Academic Emergency Medicine E&T Journal and Brown Emergency Medicine. Each quarter, we'll give you digital open access to AEM E&T Articles or Articles in Press, with an author interview podcast and links to curated supportive educational materials for EM learners and medical educators.

Find this podcast series on iTunes here.

AEM E and T Podcasts logo[1].png

DISCUSSING (click on title to access):

Factors Important to Top Clinical Performance in Emergency Medicine Residency: Results of an Ideation Survey and Delphi Panel. Jesse M. Pines MD, MBA, MSCE Sukayna Alfaraj MD Sonal Batra MD, MST Caitlin Carter MPH Nisha Manikoth EdD Colleen N. Roche MD James Scott MD Ellen F. Goldman Ed

LISTEN NOW: AUTHOR INTERVIEW WITH JESSE PINES MD, MBA, MSCE

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Jesse Pines MD, MBA, MSCE

National Director of Clinical Innovation, US Acute Care Solutions

ABSTRACT:

Objectives

We explore attributes, traits, background, skills, and behavioral factors important to top clinical performance in emergency medicine (EM) residency.

Methods

We used a two‐step process—an ideation survey with the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors and a modified Delphi technique—to identify: 1) factors important to top performance, 2) preresidency factors that predict it, and 3) the best ways to measure it. In the Delphi, six expert educators in emergency care assessed the presence of the factors from the ideation survey results in their top clinical performers. Consensus on important factors that were exemplified in >60% of top performers were retained in three Delphi rounds as well as predictors and measures of top performance.

Results

The ideation survey generated 81 responses with ideas for each factor. These were combined into 89 separate factors in seven categories: attributes, personal traits, emergency department (ED)‐specific skills and behaviors, general skill set, background, preresidency predictors, and ways to measure top performance. After three Delphi rounds, the panel achieved consensus on 20 factors important to top clinical performance. This included two attributes, seven traits, one general skill set, and 10 ED‐specific skills and behaviors. Interview performance was considered the sole important preresidency predictor and clinical competency committee results the sole important measure of top performance.

Conclusion

Our expert panel identified 20 factors important to top clinical performance in EM residency. Future work is needed to further explore how individuals learn and develop these factors.